Figure 24 presents the results of these calculations. Calculation of average rootzone salinity for the drainage pilot study area Source reduction and the impact on rootzone salinity Disposal of drainage water in southern Punjab is a major problem. Only very limited volumes of drainage water can be disposed into main irrigation canals and rivers. Evaporation ponds have been constructed to relieve the disposal problem but adverse environmental effects are observed.
Read this essay to learn about Irrigation. After reading this essay you will learn about: Meaning and Purpose of Irrigation 2. Advantages of Irrigation 3. Adverse Effects of Irrigation 4. Methods Used for Measuring 6.
Meaning and Purpose of Irrigation: Irrigation is the artificial application of water to land for growing crops or trees. Irrigation is the artificial application of water for the purpose of supplying moisture essential to plant growth.
Hansen et al, Purpose of Irrigation 1. To add water to the soil for supplying the moisture essential for the plant growth 2.
To provide crop insurance against short duration drought 3. To washout or dilute salts in the soil 5. To reduce the hazards of soil piping 6. To soften the tillage pans Essay 2.
Irrigation plays a key role in increasing food production to feed the expanding population 2. Irrigation can ensure a stable production in traditional dry land farming systems, subjected to frequent vagaries of rainfall 3. Irrigation can prolong the effective growing period in areas with dry seasons, plant permitting multiple cropping and employment generation 4.
With the security of cropping under irrigation, additional inputs tillage, fertilizers, plant protection etc. Irrigation reduced the risk of expensive inputs being wasted by drought Essay 3. Adverse Effects of Irrigation: Ground water pollution, especially with nitrates, due to seepage of water carrying nitrate from applied fertiliser to the ground water 3.
Irrigation may lead to colder and damper climate conductive to outbreak of pests and diseases. Infiltration movement of water into soil First entry of water from the upper layer of soil generally occurs in unsaturated soil.
Vertical movement of water or downward movement of water from different soil layer generally occurs in water saturated soil. Horizontal flow of water in irrigation channels or through canals. Downward movement of nutrients and salts from the root zone with the water.
The flow of excess water from the field after saturation of soil. It is also known as contingency irrigation 1. Supplemental irrigation applied to dry land crops 2. The land is not prepared for irrigation 3. Irrigation water is applied to the fields by dividing them into plots of m width with a small bund to guide the water Disadvantage: Uneven distribution of water required more labour g.
Irrigation before sowing of crops to reduce percolation of water. Crop water requirement neither is nor uniform all through base period.
The first watering is known as Kor watering. Volume or quantity of water required for irrigation to bring a crop to maturity j. The period days during which irrigation water is supplied to the crop. Delta is the total depth of water cm required by a crop during its duration in the field. The process of distribution of irrigation water.
Palco is the first irrigation before sowing the crop for seed germination and seedling establishment.
Water Resources in India:The guidelines are too restrictive for specialized irrigation methods, such as localized drip irrigation, which results in near daily or frequent irrigations, but are applicable for subsurface irrigation if surface applied leaching satisfies the leaching requirements.
Water Pollution Essay 3 ( words) The level of fresh drinking water is becoming less day by day on the earth. There is a limited availability of drinking water on the earth however that too is getting polluted because of human activities.
WATER REQUIREMENTS OF CROPS. Water stored in the root zone during irrigation / Water delivered to the field x Consumptive Irrigation Requirement (CIR) It is the amount of Irrigation water required in order to meet the evapotranspiration needs of the crop during its full growth.
It is, therefore, nothing but the consumptive use. The dam can be built during the dry season, allowing engineers to learn how to build a successful dam, without having to master also the technique of diverting the stream.
The dam can also be maintained or repaired during dry seasons. The Leaching Requirement During Irrigation The leaching of soluble salts from the plant rooting zone is a pivotal concern when irrigating cropland.
Irrigation water is used to maintain crop productivity, so drought conditions need not occur to induce irrigation measures. The Leaching Requirement During Irrigation Essay - The Leaching Requirement During Irrigation The leaching of soluble salts from the plant rooting zone is a pivotal concern when irrigating cropland.