An "Introduction to Application" attachment is required only if the type of application is resubmission or revision or if the FOA specifies that one is needed. An introduction is not allowed for new or renewal applications. Descriptions of different types of applications are listed here: NIH Types of Applications.
Provoke personal abuse Cause defensiveness Conflict is not always destructive. When it is destructive, however, managers need to understand and do something about it.
A rational process for dealing with the conflict should be programmed. Such a process should include a planned action response on the part of the manager or the organization, rather than relying on a simple reaction or a change that occurs without specific action by management.
Occupational stress Interpersonal conflict among people at work has been shown to be one of the most frequently noted stressors for employees.
It also relates to strains such as anxietydepression, physical symptoms, and low levels of job satisfaction. The presence of a dissenting member or subgroup often results in more penetration of the group's problem and more creative solutions. This is because disagreement forces the members to think harder in an attempt to cope with what may be valid objections to general group opinion.
But the group must know how to deal with differences that may arise. Interdependence recognizes that differences will exist and that they can be helpful. Hence, members learn to accept ideas from dissenters which does not imply agreeing with themthey learn to listen and to value openness, and they learn to share a mutual problem-solving attitude to ensure the exploration of all facets of a problem facing the group.
Intergroup conflict may help generate creative tensions leading to more effective contributions to the organization's goalssuch as competition between sales districts for the highest sales. Conflict management[ edit ] Constantino helps organizations design their own, ad hoc conflict management systems,  Tosi, Rizzo, and Caroll suggested that improving organizational practices could help resolve conflicts, including establishing superordinate goalsreducing vagueness, minimizing authority- and domain-related disputes, improving policies, procedures and rules, re-apportioning existing resources or adding new, altering communications, movement of personnel, and changing reward systems.
This could be seen as less risky than asking one's manager for help. HR departments may also provide an impartial person who can mediate disputes and provide an objective point of view.
Another option is the introduction of the Ombudsman figure at the organizational level, charged with surveying common causes of conflict and suggesting structural improvements to address them. Counseling - when personal conflict leads to frustration and loss of efficiencycounseling may prove to be a helpful antidote.
Although few organizations can afford the luxury of having professional counselors on the staff, given some training, managers may be able to perform this function. The nondirective approach is one effective way for managers to deal with frustrated subordinates and co-workers.
There are other more direct and more diagnostic ways that might be used in appropriate circumstances. The great strength of the nondirective approach nondirective counseling is based on the client-centered therapy of Carl Rogershowever, lies in its simplicity, its effectiveness, and the fact that it deliberately avoids the manager-counselor's diagnosing and interpreting emotional problems, which would call for special psychological training.
No one has ever been harmed by being listened to sympathetically and understandingly. On the contrary, this approach has helped many people to cope with problems that were interfering with their effectiveness on the job.
When disputes are not dealt with in a timely manner, greater efforts may be needed to solve them. Party-Directed Mediation PDM is a mediation approach particularly suited for disputes between colleagues or peers, especially those based on deep-seated interpersonal conflict or multicultural or multiethnic ones.
The mediator listens to each party separately in a pre-caucus or pre-mediation before ever bringing them into a joint session. Part of the pre-caucus also includes coaching and role plays. The idea is that the parties learn how to converse directly with their adversary in the joint session.
Some unique challenges arise when disputes involve supervisors and subordinates. The Negotiated Performance Appraisal NPA is a tool for improving communication between supervisors and subordinates and is particularly useful as an alternate mediation model because it preserves the hierarchical power of supervisors while encouraging dialogue and dealing with differences in opinion.
The manager reflects in their decision-making activities the values of the organization as they have developed through time, from the original founder-owner to the present top-management personnel. In navigating a path between the values of the organization and its objectives and goals, management has expectations concerning the organization's effectiveness and efficiency and frequently initiates changes within the organization.
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