The novel is divided into two parts. The introduction to the chapters propounds a number of riddles whose meanings are further developed as the narration continues. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 deal with suffering and the irrational pleasure of suffering.
See also, Fyodor Dostoevsky Criticism. The novella consists of "notes" on the philosophy and experiences of a retired, embittered recluse living in squalor in St. In creating the fictional author of the notes, who is commonly designated as the "underground man" by critics, Dostoevsky introduced the anti-hero into Russian fiction and firmly established the archetype of the outsider in world literature.
Yet the philosophical dimension of the novella is only one aspect of a work that also fuses sociology, psychology, and politics. In the course of his diatribe, the fictional author reveals many traits: Although he claims that his first-person, monologic notes are not written for anyone else, he nevertheless addresses an imaginary audience and anticipates its responses, thus giving the work the tenor of dialogue.
In "The Underground," the author attacks contemporary theories on the nature of humanity and refuses to submit to a life defined by laws of reason and science, which he equates with the incogitant passivity of a "piano-key.
The first incident described in "Apropos of the Wet Snow" is an ambiguous encounter with an army officer that the underground man interprets as a personal affront.
For two years the narrator plots a revenge that produces equally ambiguous results. The author then relates another story in which he intrudes upon a dinner party held by former schoolmates and proceeds to embarrass himself by insulting the others and flaunting his averred superior intelligence.
When the party subsides, the underground man follows his former schoolmates to a brothel, where he asserts his superiority over a prostitute, Liza also transliterated as Lisawhom he manipulates with a noble speech and a lofty offer of assistance.
He is humiliated at having been exposed and is unable to accept her consoling love. Shortly thereafter the notes abruptly end, with the underground man purporting that he will write no more; a comment contradicted by the heretofore silent "editor" of the notes who closes the novella by adding that the underground man "could not help going on.
In What Is To be Done? The underground man, however, attacks this triumph of science and engineering as a symbol of the absence of spontaneity and freedom.
In Notes, critics have maintained, Dostoevsky showed the moral and psychological incompatibility of an autonomous personality and the purely deterministic world heralded by Chernyshevsky and other socialist radicals. The psychological aspects of the novella have also received close attention.
Scholars have termed Notes the self-revelation of a pathological personality diversely diagnosed as narcissistic, borderline psychotic, paranoid, compulsive, or repressed. Many have held that the novella disparages the narrow intellectualism and overrefined consciousness that Dostoevsky ascribed to Russians who were, in his estimation, contaminated by the corrupt rationalist trends of western European thought.
Still others have focused on the underground man as a social type representative of individuals unable to establish a bond with humanity: Notes has also been considered an argument for existential choice, and, similarly a protest against utilitarianism, materialism, and positivism. Critical Reception Notes from the Underground was a pivotal work for Dostoevsky for its inauguration of themes prominent in his later novels and its introduction of the acutely self-analytical, spiritually torn hero, who is a prototype for many other of his characters.
Chords previously unheard had been struck with admirable precision.
No other text by Dostoevsky has exerted more influence on twentieth-century thought or technique.A summary of Themes in Fyodor Dostoevsky's Notes from Underground. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Notes from Underground and what it means.
Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Notes from Underground iv thoughts, loopholes, special pleadings; and admirable, too, for the dynamics of its composition, the interplay of its two parts, which represent two historical moments, two climates of opinion,“ ” as well as two images of the man from underground, revealed by different means and with very different tonalities.
Notes from Underground (pre-reform Russian: Записки изъ подполья; post-reform Russian: Записки из подполья, tr. Zapíski iz podpólʹya), also translated as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld, is an novella by Fyodor Dostoevsky. Dostoyevsky's Notes from the Underground: Contrasting Roles Essay Contrasting Roles: The Good and the Bad In Fydor Dostoyesky’s, Notes from the Underground, the relationship between an underground man and a young prostitute, Liza, depicts admirable and harsh qualities.
Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis and Fyodor Dostoevsky’s Notes from Underground definitely make an interesting comparison/contrast essay topic. When writing introductions, it is important to.
Notes from Underground iv thoughts, loopholes, special pleadings; and admirable, too, for the dynamics of its composition, the interplay of its two parts, which represent two historical moments, two climates of opinion,“ ” as well as two images of the man from underground, revealed by different means and with very different tonalities.