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Timeline of notable computer viruses and worms Early academic work on self-replicating programs[ edit ] The first academic work on the theory of self-replicating computer programs  was done in by John von Neumann who gave lectures at the University of Illinois about the "Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata ".
The work of von Neumann was later published as the "Theory of self-reproducing automata". In his essay von Neumann described how a computer program could be designed to reproduce itself.
The Reaper program was created to delete Creeper. On its 50th use the Elk Cloner virus would be activated, infecting the personal computer and displaying a short poem beginning "Elk Cloner: The program with a personality. InFred Cohen published a demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses.
However, antivirus professionals do not accept the concept of "benevolent viruses", as any desired function can be implemented without involving a virus automatic compression, for instance, is available under the Windows operating system at the choice of the user.
Any virus will by definition make unauthorised changes to a computer, which is undesirable even if no damage is done or intended.
On page one of Dr Solomon's Virus Encyclopaedia, the undesirability of viruses, even those that do nothing but reproduce, is thoroughly explained. Gunn under the title "Use of virus functions to provide a virtual APL interpreter under user control" in A few years later, in FebruaryAustralian hackers from the virus-writing crew VLAD created the Bizatch virus also known as "Boza" viruswhich was the first known virus to target Windows In late the encrypted, memory-resident stealth virus Win Cabanas was released—the first known virus that targeted Windows NT it was also able to infect Windows 3.
The first one to appear on the Commodore Amiga was a boot sector virus called SCA viruswhich was detected in November Users would be required to click on a link to activate the virus, which would then send an email containing user data to an anonymous email addresswhich was later found to be owned by Larose.
Data sent would contain items such as user IP address and email addresses, contacts, website browsing history, and commonly used phrases. Inlarger websites used part of the Win Operations and functions[ edit ] Parts[ edit ] A viable computer virus must contain a search routinewhich locates new files or new disks which are worthwhile targets for infection.
Secondly, every computer virus must contain a routine to copy itself into the program which the search routine locates. Infection mechanism[ edit ] Infection mechanism also called 'infection vector'is how the virus spreads or propagates.
A virus typically has a search routine, which locates new files or new disks for infection. Payload activity might be noticeable e. This life cycle can be divided into four phases: Dormant phase[ edit ] The virus program is idle during this stage.
The virus program has managed to access the target user's computer or software, but during this stage, the virus does not take any action.
The virus will eventually be activated by the "trigger" which states which event will execute the virus, such as a date, the presence of another program or file, the capacity of the disk exceeding some limit or the user taking a certain action e.
Not all viruses have this stage. The virus places a copy of itself into other programs or into certain system areas on the disk. The copy may not be identical to the propagating version; viruses often "morph" or change to evade detection by IT professionals and anti-virus software.
Each infected program will now contain a clone of the virus, which will itself enter a propagation phase. The triggering phase can be caused by a variety of system events, including a count of the number of times that this copy of the virus has made copies of itself.
It can be destructive such as deleting files on disk, crashing the system, or corrupting files or relatively harmless such as popping up humorous or political messages on screen. COM filesdata files such as Microsoft Word documents or PDF filesor in the boot sector of the host's hard drive or some combination of all of these.
Resident viruses overwrite interrupt handling code or other functionsand when the operating system attempts to access the target file or disk sector, the virus code intercepts the request and redirects the control flow to the replication module, infecting the target.
In contrast, a non-memory-resident virus or "non-resident virus"when executed, scans the disk for targets, infects them, and then exits i. A macro virus or "document virus" is a virus that is written in a macro languageand embedded into these documents so that when users open the file, the virus code is executed, and can infect the user's computer.
This is one of the reasons that it is dangerous to open unexpected or suspicious attachments in e-mails. Boot sector viruses[ edit ] Email virus[ edit ] Email virus — A virus that intentionally, rather than accidentally, uses the email system to spread.
While virus infected files may be accidentally sent as email attachmentsemail viruses are aware of email system functions.
Some old viruses, especially on the DOS platform, make sure that the "last modified" date of a host file stays the same when the file is infected by the virus. This approach does not fool antivirus softwarehowever, especially those which maintain and date cyclic redundancy checks on file changes.
They accomplish this by overwriting unused areas of executable files. These are called cavity viruses.
Because those files have many empty gaps, the virus, which was 1 KB in length, did not add to the size of the file.A computer virus is a type of malicious software that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.
When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be "infected" with a computer virus. Virus writers use social engineering deceptions and exploit detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities to initially infect systems and.
Surveillance Kills Freedom By Killing Experimentation. Bruce Schneier; Wired; November 16, ; Excerpted from the upcoming issue of McSweeney's, "The End of Trust," a collection featuring more than 30 writers investigating surveillance, technology, and privacy. The IELTS writing task 2 sample answer below has examiner comments and is band score 9.
The topic of social media is common and this IELTS essay question was reported in the IELTS test. Check the model essay and then read the comments.
Many people believe that social networking sites (such as. Network Security essaysThe field of network security is a very dynamic, and highly technical field dealing with all aspects of scanning, hacking and securing systems against intrusions.
There are many positions related to this, however the most common would be that of a Network Security Engineer, a. Social media and social networking seem to play an imperative part of peoples lives around the world.
There are some who debate whether it is improving or crippling communication skills. Sitting behind a computer communicating with cyber friends can be easy and fun but can weaken a person’s verbal.
Computer Network Security and Firewall Essay Principals of Information Security 4th Edition Questions Chapter 6 Questions 1. What is the typical relationship to Computer Networking Prof. Jean-Yves Le Boudec Prof. Andrzej Duda Prof.
Laurent Toutain Prof. Patrick Thiran ICA.