Writing a literature review What is a literature review? A literature review is a critical analysis of published sources, or literature, on a particular topic. It is an assessment of the literature and provides a summary, classification, comparison and evaluation. At postgraduate level literature reviews can be incorporated into an article, a research report or thesis.
Appendices Dedication This book is dedicated to my wife and my parents for their care and love. My the Almighty richly bless them. I would like to acknowledge the efforts of the following persons without which this book would not have been possible.
Special thanks go to my children; Agatha, Daisy, Esther, my parents and more especially my wife for their great support and prayers. I would also in a special way want to recognise my supervisors Mr.
Babimpa Nuwagaba Edwin and Mrs. Ogbedeagn Priscilla Ebere for their tireless effort to make me accomplish this great task in a reasonable amount of time. Above all I thank the Almighty God for the gift of life and all the blessings that have enabled me to reach this point in time.
The methods used include qualitative and quantitative approaches to collect and analyse data. The research study was carried out in Kabale Municipality where it was found out that performance appraisal is not generally well conducted.
There is poor feedback management, where appraisal results are not used for staff promotion, professional development or determining remunerations. Poor feedback has also bred into negative results like demotion, abuse and reduced salary.
All the above have therefore resulted into staff failing to fill appraisal forms or when filled they fail to submit them to the Ministry of Education to use the appraisal results for staff promotion, job improvement and counselling sessions to improve staff competence. In organizational setting, performance appraisal is defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, that usually takes the form of a periodic interview annual or semi-annualin which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills development McNamara, Moorhead and Griffin describe it as the process of evaluating work behaviors by measurement and comparison to previously established standards, recording the results, and communicating them back to the employee.
It is an activity between a manager and an employee. Performance appraisal is therefore the assessment of performance of an individual in relation to the objectives, activities, outputs, and targets of a job over a given period of time. Performance appraisal is a powerful tool for performance management.
Okumbe asserts that performance helps in evaluating how a worker succeeds in his present job and this is important for estimating how well he or she will perform in the future. This therefore helps in determining the strengths or weaknesses of the individual workers to increase productivity.
In companies, performance appraisal systems PAS began as simple methods for deciding whether or not the salary of an employee was justified. Later on, empirical studies showed that pay rates were not the only element that had an impact on employee performance.
It was found out that other issues, such as morale and self-esteem, could also have major influence. That resulted in progressive rejection of emphasis of performance appraisal on reward outcomes, and in s, in the United States, its potential as a tool for motivation and development was recognized.
The general model of performance appraisal, as it is known today, began from that time. Armstrong notes that performance management has risen from the old-established but somewhat discredited systems of merit rating and management by objective and that many of the more recent developments in performance appraisal have been absorbed into the concept of performance management which aims to be a much more wider, more comprehensive and more natural process of management.
Performance appraisal has too often operated as a top down and largely discredited bureaucratic system owned by the personnel department and this has limited its intended value.
Brattonstressed that, performance appraisal is a continuous and flexible process that involves managers and those whom they manage acting as partners within the required results. After the Second World war, Cole notes that an alternative approach to people management emerged.
This approach focused attention on people as a way of improving organisational effectiveness, and was based not on personal experiences but observation. Writers like Druckerwere enthusiastic about appraisal.IMPACT OF SCHOOL FEEDING PROGRAMS ON EDUCATIONAL, NUTRITIONAL, AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT GOALS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF LITERATURE.
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Lawson. A PLAN B PAPER. Submitted to. Comments on Methods and Study Design CHAPTER 5. Sustainability, Cost Effectiveness, and Implementation Challenges in.
CHAPTER- 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Studies Related to Banks 42 CHAPTER-II REVIEW OF LITERATURE To-day, we cannot think about the success of a banking system without information technology and communication.
It has enlarged the role of banking sector in Studies Related to Banks: Dannenberg and Kellner (), in their study.
FAMILY SIZE AND ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS IN THE SUNYANI MUNICIPALITY OF THE BRONG AHAFO REGION OF GHANA, WEST AFRICA Prepared by Jones Lewis Arthur Twene Amanfo Secondary/Technical School Sunyani, Brong Ahafo Region Ghana, West Africa. Submitted to: Centre for Development Studies, Faculty of Social Science, University of Cape Coast. Literature Review on Attitudes towards Disability 7 type of disability. The highest feelings of ease were recorded in Ireland, the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden, Spain and Denmark (on average at least ) compared to for West Germany, for East Germany and for Greece. In McGreil’s work on. The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of digital objects by authors, publishers, corporations, governments, and even librarians, archivists, and museum curators, has emphasized the speed and ease of short-term dissemination with little regard for the long-term preservation of digital information.
Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature Foreign Literature The major curricular reform will occur in an attempt to make schools more flexible and responsive to individual student needs.
Nearly one-third of the elementary and junior high curricula will be eliminated with deep cuts in all major subjects%(6). Search for existing literature in your area of study (you need to have an idea or problem in Literature Review - Literature Review Related Science, Literature Reviews - Literature Reviews Dr.
Wayne E. Wright Royal University of Phnom Penh Purpose of a Literature Reviews in a Thesis or Research Report To learn what is already known. Chapter 2 of the Prospectus: Titled “Chapter 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE" A literature review is where you review published material related to your problem.
Presents / cites research from scholarly or peer-reviewed sources only. Identifies relations, contradictions, gaps, and inconsistencies in previous research presented. What Is a Literature Review? closely related work.
More Tips on How to Write a Good Literature Review Write with a purpose Chapter 2: Literature Review.