Influences[ edit ] As early as the lates, art museum personnel began to consider how they could exploit the Internet to achieve their institutions' missions through online platforms. Another Google initiative— Google Books —affected the development of the platform from a non-technological perspective.
Nomenclature[ edit ] Mannerism role-model: The artists of Mannerism greatly admired this piece of sculpture. Like the English word "style", maniera can either indicate a specific type of style a beautiful style, an abrasive style or indicate an absolute that needs no qualification someone "has style".
Mirollo describes how "bella maniera" poets attempted to surpass in virtuosity the sonnets of Petrarch. In essence, "bella maniera" utilized the best from a number of source materials, synthesizing it into something new.
It was used by Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt and popularized by German art historians in the early 20th century to categorize the seemingly uncategorizable art of the Italian 16th century — art that was no longer found to exhibit the harmonious and rational approaches associated with the High Renaissance.
However, for later writers, such as the 17th-century Gian Pietro Bellori, "la maniera" was a derogatory term for the perceived decline of art after Raphael, especially in the s and s. Yet historians differ as to whether Mannerism is a style, a movement, or a period; and while the term remains controversial it is still commonly used to identify European art and culture of the 16th century.
No more difficulties, technical or otherwise, remained to be solved. The detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, physiognomy and the way in which humans register emotion in expression and gesture, the innovative use of the human form in figurative composition, the use of the subtle gradation of tone, all had reached near perfection.
The young artists needed to find a new goal, and they sought new approaches. Michelangelo developed his own style at an early age, a deeply original one which was greatly admired at first, then often copied and imitated by other artists of the era.
His Sistine Chapel ceiling provided examples for them to follow, in particular his representation of collected figures often called ignudi and of the Libyan Sibylhis vestibule to the Laurentian Librarythe figures on his Medici tombs, and above all his Last Judgment. The later Michelangelo was one of the great role models of Mannerism.
It drove artists to look for new approaches and dramatically illuminated scenes, elaborate clothes and compositions, elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and a lack of clear perspective. These two artists were set to paint side by side and compete against each other, fueling the incentive to be as innovative as possible.
These artists had matured under the influence of the High Renaissance, and their style has been characterized as a reaction to or exaggerated extension of it. Instead of studying nature directly, younger artists began studying Hellenistic sculpture and paintings of masters past.
The earliest experimental phase of Mannerism, known for its "anti-classical" forms, lasted until about or Hall, professor of art history at Temple University, notes in her book After Raphael that Raphael's premature death marked the beginning of Mannerism in Rome.
In past analyses, it has been noted that mannerism arose in the early 16th century contemporaneously with a number of other social, scientific, religious and political movements such as the Copernican modelthe Sack of Romeand the Protestant Reformation 's increasing challenge to the power of the Catholic Church.
Because of this, the style's elongated forms and distorted forms were once interpreted as a reaction to the idealized compositions prevalent in High Renaissance art. High maniera[ edit ] The second period of Mannerism is commonly differentiated[ citation needed ] from the earlier, so-called "anti-classical" phase.
Subsequent mannerists stressed intellectual conceits and artistic virtuosity, features that have led later critics to accuse them of working in an unnatural and affected "manner" maniera. Maniera artists looked to their older contemporary Michelangelo as their principal model; theirs was an art imitating art, rather than an art imitating nature.
Art historian Sydney Joseph Freedberg argues that the intellectualizing aspect of maniera art involves expecting its audience to notice and appreciate this visual reference—a familiar figure in an unfamiliar setting enclosed between "unseen, but felt, quotation marks".
Agnolo Bronzino and Giorgio Vasari exemplify this strain of Maniera that lasted from about to Based largely at courts and in intellectual circles around Europe, Maniera art couples exaggerated elegance with exquisite attention to surface and detail: The Maniera subject rarely displays much emotion, and for this reason works exemplifying this trend are often called 'cold' or 'aloof.
Venetian painting pursued a different course, represented by Titian in his long career. A number of the earliest Mannerist artists who had been working in Rome during the s fled the city after the Sack of Rome in As they spread out across the continent in search of employment, their style was disseminated throughout Italy and Northern Europe.
European rulers, among others, purchased Italian works, while northern European artists continued to travel to Italy, helping to spread the Mannerist style. Individual Italian artists working in the North gave birth to a movement known as the Northern Mannerism.
The style waned in Italy afteras a new generation of artists, including the Carracci brothers, Caravaggio and Cigolirevived naturalism. Walter Friedlaender identified this period as "anti-mannerism", just as the early mannerists were "anti-classical" in their reaction away from the aesthetic values of the High Renaissance  and today the Carracci brothers and Caravaggio are agreed to have begun the transition to Baroque-style painting which was dominant by Outside of Italy, however, Mannerism continued into the 17th century.
In France, where Rosso traveled to work for the court at Fontainebleauit is known as the " Henry II style " and had a particular impact on architecture. Mannerism as a stylistic category is less frequently applied to English visual and decorative arts, where native labels such as " Elizabethan " and " Jacobean " are more commonly applied.
Seventeenth-century Artisan Mannerism is one exception, applied to architecture that relies on pattern books rather than on existing precedents in Continental Europe. Prevalent at this time was the "pittore vago," a description of painters from the north who entered the workshops in France and Italy to create a truly international style.
Sculpture[ edit ] As in painting, early Italian Mannerist sculpture was very largely an attempt to find an original style that would top the achievement of the High Renaissancewhich in sculpture essentially meant Michelangelo, and much of the struggle to achieve this was played out in commissions to fill other places in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, next to Michelangelo 's David.Delegation strategies for the NCLEX, Prioritization for the NCLEX, Infection Control for the NCLEX, FREE resources for the NCLEX, FREE NCLEX Quizzes for the NCLEX, FREE NCLEX exams for the NCLEX, Failed the NCLEX - Help is here.
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